The inhabited centre of Castelnuovo d'Elsa rises on a small hill dominating the road that links Castelfiorentino to San Miniato al Tedesco. The village arose as one of the thirty-six castles belonging to the district of San Miniato. It was already surrounded by walls by the beginning of the 12th century which, together with the church and the keep, date to the medieval period. Worth a visit are two religious buildings: the church of Santa Maria Assunta, in the upper part of the village, and the church of SS. Lorenzo e Barbara, which dominates the small central piazza.